Birth Date: August 26, 1878
Date of Death: March 7, 1968
Place of Birth: Libau, Latvia, Russian Empire
Place of Death: Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union
Nationality: Russian
Occupation/Field of Study Lina Stern was a Russian scientist credited for major breakthroughs in neurophysiology and biochemistry; the most acclaimed one being her development of the hemato-encephalic barrier concept.

 

KEYWORDS: Lina, Stern, Russian, Soviet Union, Jewish, Blood Brain Barrier, Stalin, Execution, Doctor’s Plot, Geneva University.

SHE THOUGHT IT:

Lina Stern is considered the mother of the hemato-encephalic barrier, or blood brain barrier (BBB), concept since she was the first to use this terminology in the early 1920s(p. 2). She was confident of the existence of such a structure after a series of experiments she carried out where she injected a number of substances into the brain parenchyma and blood2. In one of her published works in French,  ”Le liquide céphalorachidien au point de vue de ses rapports avec la circulation sanguine et avec les éléments de l’axe cérébro-spinal”, she reached a number of conclusions on the roles and functions of the blood-brain barrier. She suggested that the BBB can act as a protective layer for the brain  against harmful substances while at the same time it provides the brain with material essential for the processes of metabolism and homeostasis3.

Lina Stern was one of the first scientists to carry out extensive experiments and research on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a medium of passage(p. 9). She found out that the CFS is selectively permeable(2) as certain test compounds like bromide, thiocyante and strychine made it through , in contrast to others which did not(9). Most importantly though, she discovered that while tetanus could pass into the CFS, the anti-tetanus serum, which was effective in fighting tetanus in the bloodstream, could not make it into the CFS(p. 46) thus rendering it  ineffective in cases of tetanus presence in the CFS. It was based on these findings that, two decades later and during the  Second World War, Lina Stern developed a groundbreaking technique to bypass the impermeability of the barrier insulating the CFS(p. 46) by injecting drugs directly to the skull; a feat which is credited for saving thousands of lives in the fronts of WWII7(198).

At the same time, Lina Stern was determined to treat traumatic shock among soldiers in the battlefield using potassium phosphate injections to the brain(p. 202). Using her research findings on the hemato-encephalic barrier she directed the development of the drug at her institute and carried out some of the first practical injections herself, travelling to the fronts of the Winter War(p. 241). While her method was occasionally successful(p. 241), it was largely controversial among scientific circles  who claimed that the method was incompatible with the anatomy of the brain(p. 241) thus prompting the Medial Board of the Soviet Army to reject it(p. 241).

An equally important achievement by Lina Stern was her work on meningitis tuberculosis(p. 208). Convinced that her method to inject drugs to cure traumatic shock was still effective(p. 241), she used her scientific network to get the antibiotic ”streptomycin” shipped to Russia in order to attempt to apply it using her method on patients suffering from meningitis tuberculosis(p. 241). Indeed, in 1944, her endeavour proved fruitful as a ten year old girl infected with the deadly disease(p. 241) became the first successful treatment of tuberculosis meningitis in the world10 (p. 56). More 979 successful treatments followed earning Stern and her team a patent for the cure of meningitis tuberculosis(p. 202).

In addition to her work on the hemato-encephalic barrier and the achievements surrounding it, Lina Stern actively carried out research in  other areas of such as physiology of blood and the effects of electrical discharge on the heart(p. 196).  Furthermore, she studied the process of uric acid oxidation and has authored 54 articles on cellular metabolism(p. 196).

 

BIOGRAPHY:

Lina Stern was born in Kurland, a province of the Russian empire, on the 26th of August, 1878. Her Jewish background made it impossible for her to be offered a place at a Russian Institution(p. 196) and after two years of unsuccessful attempts to gain entry into Moscow University she moved to Switzerland to start a medical course at the University of Geneva . During her student years in Geneva, she worked for the Physiology department of the university where she also published her first scientific article, ” “Expérience sur la prétendu sécrétion interne des reins”. Upon the completion of her doctoral thesis and unable to land a scientific work, even in the relatively liberal Switzerland, due to her gender(p. 196), she decided to return back to Russia where she passed the local medicine exams to get the permit to exercise the profession in Russia.  However, she soon received a letter by Louis Prévost, the head of Geneva’s Physiology centre, asking her to return to Geneva to assume the position of laboratory assistant ; an invitation she unhesitatingly accepted(p. 196).

She later became the first woman to acquire an associate professor rank at the University of Geneva11 (p. 288), in 1918. At the same time, she would work for a number of pharmaceutical  companies thus creating a comfortable life for herself(p. 199). Despite all these, though, and greatly influenced by the revolutionary cause through her  interaction with Russian intellectuals residing in Switzerland(pp. 199-200), she accepts an invitation to head the chair of physiology at Moscow’s Second State university; a move she explained years later as being based on her realisation that impoverished   Soviet Union was in greater need of her skills than affluent Switzerland(p. 200).

Her academic life in the Soviet Union progressed impressively. She created new courses of physiology at her University, published a series of journals in three languages and by 1929 she became the head of the brand new Institute of Physiology in Moscow. Her scientific achievements in late twenties and thirties have earned her worldwide admiration12 with leading scientists  descending to  Leningrad, in 1935, for the International Physiology Conference upon Stern’s invitation who ferociously fought to organise it in Russia(p. 200).  Her achievements were also recognised by the Rockefeller foundation which awarded her with a  funding for her research.

In 1939, she joined the Communist Party, gained the respects of the political elite and donated the whole sum of an award she received for the creation of a medical plane in order the support the Soviet Union’s fight against Nazi Germany. Nothing seemed to predict what was waiting for her after the end of WWII.  As the newly created Jewish state of Israel tacitly aligned itself with the west13 ,Stalin’s hopes for a new  pro-Soviet socialist state in the Middle East were tarnished and his warm support to the creation of Israel turned into a phobia to anything associated with it14 (p. 493); in his mind this also included prominent Soviet Jews14 (p. 493), one of them being Lina Stern. As Vein puts it, in light of Stalin’s post war anti-Semitic  paranoia ”clouds were gradually gathering over academician Stern”(p. 203).

Indeed, in 1948 an attempt to discredit her scientific reputation was initiated by accusing her for antiscientific practices15. She was attributed the term ”cosmopolitan”(p. 203)  which in Stalinist USSR meant a collaborator of the west and essentially a traitor16. The Physiology Institute which she was heading was soon disbanded and she was sacked despite her admirable calmness in answering all the questions forwarded by a puppet scientific committee  who had the sole purpose  of proving her wrong(p. 203). Finally, in 1941 and at the age of 71, she was arrested and after an enormous physical and psychological torture she was forced to ”confess” along with the other fourteen leading Jewish figures of being the ”chief of a nationalist  clandestine organisation17, namely the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. At one point during the interrogation and after  Lina Stern denied being an American spy, the minister of state security, Viktor Abakumov, roared at her: ” Stop lying you old whore”18 (p. 211),showing a profound disrespect to the sacrifices and contributions this woman made  for her country at the expense of her own comfort and self prosperity.

Finally, the court convicted Lina Stern, along with the other fourteen prominent Jews, to execution for espionage activity on behalf of the United States19. The decision was finally carried out on the 12th of August ,1952, and thirteen of the fifteen convicts were  executed in what is now known as the ” night of the murdered poets”. One of them died in the prison while Lina Stern, was in the end, exempted from execution and was sentenced instead to three and a half years of imprisonment and to five more years of exile in Kazakhstan. It is widely speculated that the reason of Lina’s ”special treatment” was Stalin’s anxiety about his deteriorating health and his knowledge that Sterns discoveries on longevity could prove useful in prolonging his life(p. 204).

Even during her imprisonment, Stern’s passion about science never abated. She requested some pieces of paper and a pen and kept authoring journals in which she proposed ideas on how her breakthroughs on the BBB could help in the treatment of cancer(p. 204). She even, admittedly naively(p. 204), sent a letter to the authorities requesting access to a laboratory in order to continue with her experimental work(p. 204).

Joseph Stalin’s death in 1953 brought a change in the leadership of the Soviet Union and there was an admittance on governmental level that the” Doctor’s plot”, which is what the prosecution of the 15 members of the JAFC was called, was fabricated. All the fifteen convicts were rehabilitated and Lina Stern , as the only one alive, was soon appointed as the head of the Institute of biophysics. In spite of her ordeal, and against the expectations of everyone, she maintained the same dedication to her scientific work and continued writing scientific articles and expanding her international contacts(p. 205). She did not make a family and she died at the age of 89 in Moscow, on the 5th of Mach 1968. She is buried at the famous Novodevichy Cemetery next to other important figures of Russian history, such as Anton Chekhov and Mikhail Bulgakov.

 

SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION AND RECOGNITION:

Lina Stern’s major achievements were always a result of team work and throughout her career she work with acclaimed scientists. Her most important collaborator was Frederic Batteli,  a Swiss scientist who was also a researcher at Geneva’s Institute of Physiology. Together, they published a number of journals and carried out several experiments on respiratory enzymes(p. 196). They have investigated, among others, the properties of the enzyme ”uricase”20 and established a link between the amounts of oxygen used and Carbon dioxide produced during enzyme oxidation with Wiechowski’s theory of allantoin21 (p. 1).  The duo has also worked with Thorsten Ludvig Thunberg on the properties of substances found in minced animal tissues and their effects on hydrogen atoms transfer(p. 196).

Also, between 1918 and 1925,Lina Stern closely cooperated with Raymond Gautier on a number of experiments in relation to the blood brain barrier concept. They conducted a series of experiments on animals and by injecting various substances into them, concluding that     Intracerebral distribution of the substances is actually taking place22.

The findings of Lina Stern and her contribution to the scientific world were universally praised. Her recognition exceeded the borders of the Soviet Union and she earned the respect of the international scientific community8(p.200). She was annually invited to lecture at leading scientific events around the world and important scientists such as P.Hoffman, F.Logier and J.Buccert would visit her Moscow laboratory to gain an insight of her work. Many of them, as a gesture of appreciation to her work, also donated expensive equipment to her institute which was essential to maintain high quality research8(p.200). She also occupied a place in the German magazine ”Eminent women of Europe” which was an annual publication before the war commemorating important achievements by European women8(p.201).

 

SHE SAID IT:

“Initially, medicine appealed to me not as a science, but as a philanthropic activity”

in Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences, F.1563.N1, 2, 3, translated by Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

“one doesn’t know what kind of babies will be born from this marriage. . . ”

In response to the news that the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was a ”marriage of convenience”, in  Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

” Living in Switzerland, I knew a number of the political emigrants…I took no part in political life, although I sympathized with the revolutionary movement in general. I was completely engaged in my scientific work. The imperialist war and its consequences forced me to ponder, causing protest against the existing capitalist system and, completely naturally, increasing sympathies to the revolutionary movement in Russia.”

in Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences, F.1563.N1, 2, 3, translated by Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

“I do not want to take into the grave all that can still serve the Soviet Union and the whole world.”

in Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences, F.1563.N1, 2, 3, translated by Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

 

THEY SAID IT:

”Lina Solomonovna Stern has passed away — out went the bright star, which for so long has lit up the horizon of Soviet and world physiology. Gone is the great toiler, whose motto of life was: “Work, work, work!” ”

Kositksy Grigory Ivanovich, quoted by Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

”Most scientists manage to conduct their research by adjusting to the political and social situations surrounding them. Lina Stern did not follow this path. This small woman of complete devotion to science took the drastic decisions that altered her life. Though destiny was not kind to her, Lina Stern did not compromise. Despite a threat of execution, prolonged imprisonment, and exile she was never broken as a scientist and always maintained her dignity.”

Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968), A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.

 

PRIZES, ACHIEVEMENTS, HONOURS:

1902: Geneva University prize for her work on the Internal secretion of kidneys ”Expérience sur la prétendu sécrétion interne des reins” in Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande”

1934: gained the title of ”Distinguished Scientist of the USSR” which was accompanied with a car as an award.

1934: Honorable place in the magazine ”Eminent women of Europe”.

1939: The first woman to be elected as full member to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

1939: Elected to the Leopoldina Academy of Germany.

1943: Stalin State Prize for her lifetime achievements in Science.

1944: Admitted to the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

1960: Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Geneva.

BRIDGING GAPS:

While Lina Stern was wholeheartedly devoted to science, she did not shy away from public life and dedicated a significant  portion of her time in advancing her political convictions. During her stay in Geneva she befriended many Russian intellectuals and adopted their revolutionary anti-capitalist  cause8(p. 205). This was a catalyst in the development of her future ideological beliefs and during WWII, she published a number of antifascist articles and enthusiastically supported, through her writings, the war efforts of the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany by drawing parallels between soviet soldiers and the ancient Palestinian revolutionaries, the Maccabees and the Bar Kokhba18(p. 127). Moreover, she joined the Jewish anti-fascist committee which was made up of influential soviet Jews whose task was to mobilise international support, especially in the west, for the war effort of the Soviet Union23(p. 55). As a member of the committee, she travelled to the USA and managed to secure significant support for its cause. She was also actively involved with the Geneva based International Federation of University Women and contributed to the organisation with an article titled ”science and fascism”(p. 203).

 

INTERTEXTUAL MATERIAL

For this part it was really hard to find something but after exhaustive research i found two possible but with minimum information about them so i will need someone;s advice on how we should handle it.  I provide the links below , and I would appreciate any suggestions.

  1. This is a paintng/ drawing of her I found on University of Geneva’s website : https://www.unige.ch/campus/files/2414/7246/8211/campus110_tetechercheuse_6TC.pdf
  2. This one is a conference that happened in her honour , bu it is only briefly mentioned in this article but without any further information. I also searched on other sources but with no success to find something more about it. https://sanp.ch/en/resource/jf/journal/file/view/article/sanp.2010.02158/2010-04-035.pdf/

It is the last paragraph. Im quoting it here: In 1978, a special conference was organised in honour of her rich and important heritage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (BY THE AUTHOR):

”Expérience sur la prétendu sécrétion interne des reins” (1902) ,in Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romand.

with Battelli, Frederic (1912), ”Die Oxydationsfermente”, Ergeb Physiol 12,96–268.

”Le liquide céfalo-rachidien au point de vue de ses rapports avec la circulation sanguine et avec les éléments nerveux de l’axe cérébrospinal” (1921), Schweiz.Arch.Neurol. und Psychiatr, 8(2): 215–232.

with Gautier, Raymond, (1921), ”Recherches sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien”, Arch.int.Physiol, 17(2): 138–192.

with Gautier ,Raymond  (1922),”Recherches sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien. Les rapports entre le liquide céphalo-rachidien et les éléments nerveux de l’axe cérébrospinal. Arch.int.Physiol, 17(4): 391–448.

with Peyrot, Rener (1927): ”Le fonctionnement de la barrière hématoencéphalique aux divers stades de développement chez diverses espèces animales”.,C.R. Soc. Biol.,Paris,  96, 1124–1126.

with Rapoport J, Lokschina. ES (1929): Le fonctionnement de la barrière hématoencéphalique chez les nouveaunés,SocBiol ,100, 231–233.

” Present state of the problem of hematoencephalic barrier”, Usp Sovrem Biol, 45(3), 328–348.

FURTHER READING:

 

WORKS CITED

  1. Lyck, Ruth/ Enzmann, Gaby (2017), The Blood Brain Barrier and Inflammation, Cham, Springer.
  2. Wai, Brian Chow /Chenghua Gu (2015),”The Molecular Constituents of the Blood-Brain Barrie”, Trends in neurosciences, 38(10),598–608.
  3. Stern, Lina (1921),”Le liquide céphalorachidien au point de vue de ses rapports avec la circulation sanguine et avec les éléments de l’axe cérébro-spinal.”, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatr ,8, 215-232.
  4. Davson, Hugh/ Zlocovic ,Berislav / Rakic, Ljubisa /Segal, Malcolm (1993), An Introduction to the Blood-brain Barrier, Hong Kong, CRC Press.
  5. Mahringer, Anna/ Ott, Melanie/ Fricker, Gert (2014), The Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), London, Springer.
  6. Kruszelnicki, Karl (2013), Game of Knowns: Science Is Coming, Pan Macmillan Australia, Sydney.
  7. Hargittai, Magdolna (2015), Women Scientists: Reflections, Challenges, and Breaking Boundaries, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  8. Veil, Alla (2008), ”Science and Fate: Lina Stern (1878–1968): A Neurophysiologist and Biochemist”, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17(2), 195-206.
  9. Rapoport ,I͡Akov Lʹvovich (1991), The Doctors’ Plot of 1953, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
  10. Kuchment, Anna (2012), The Forgotten Cure: The Past and Future of Phage Therapy, New York City, New York, Springer.
  11. Saunders, Norman/Dziegielewska, Katarzyna/Mollgard, Kjerd/Habgood, Mark (2016), ” The rights and wromgs of blood brain barrier permeability studies: a walk through 100 years of history, in Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Brain Barrier Mechanisms, Frontiers Media, Lausanne.
  12. Jacques, Dreifuss Jean/ Tikhonov, Natalia (2006), ”The intersection of personal and academic history: Lina Stern (1878–1968)”, The Global and the Local: The History of Science and the Cultural Integration of Europe, Proceedings of the 2nd ICESHS.
  13. Bialer, Uri (1990), Between East and West: Israel’s Foreign Policy Orientation 1948-1956, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  14. Figes, Orlando (2008), The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin’s Russia, Reprint edition, London, Picador.
  15. Apotheker, Jan/ Simon, Sarkadi Livia (2011), Lina Solomonovna Shtern (also Stern, Schtern) (1878-1968), in European Women in Chemistry, Weinheim, Wiley-VCH.
  16. Azadovskii, Konstantin/ Egorov, Boris (2006), ”From Anti-Westernism to Anti-Semitism: Stalin and the Impact of the “Anti-Cosmopolitan” Campaigns on Soviet Culture”, Journal of Cold War Studies,4(1), 66-80.
  17. Rubenstein, Joshua / Naumov ,Pavlovich Vladimir (2005), Stalin’s Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press.
  18. Lustiger, Arno (2003), Stalin and the Jews: The Red Book : the Tragedy of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and the Soviet Jews, New York City, New York, Enigma.
  19. Birstein, Vadim (2001), The Perversion Of Knowledge: The True Story Of Soviet Science, Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press.
  20. Battelli, Frederic/ Stern, Lina I1909), Biochem, Z, 19.
  21. Klemperer, Fridrich (4 Jun.1945), ”Enzymatic Oxidation of Uric Acid”, Medical Clinic, Massachusetts General Hospital, the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston, <http://www.jbc.org/content/160/1/111.full.pdf> (last accessed 9 Jul.2017).
  22. Stern, Lina/ Gautier, Raymond (1921), ”Recherches Sur Le Liquide CÉphalo-Rachidien: I.–Les Rapports Entre Le Liquide CÉphalo-Rachidien et la Circulation Sanguine”, Archives Internationales de Physiologie , 17 , Iss. 2,1921.
  23. Todorov, Tzvetan (2000), Hope and Memory: Lessons from the Twentieth Century, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

 

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